The FDA’s device center has put forth a number of policy documents to handle the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, and one of the latest takes up the filing of supplements for PMA and humanitarian device exemption devices. As is the case with a number of other guidances for the pandemic, this guidance spells out the conditions under which sponsors need not file for changes to devices in some instances, but device makers must document all those changes nonetheless.
The policy for PMA and HDE devices allows the manufacturer to make changes to the device without a 30-day notice or a supplement if a design change was motivated by a need to address a lack of components caused by supply chain disruptions. Manufacturing site changes can be undertaken without a supplementary filing if that site change was necessary to provide employees with sufficient room to practice social distancing.
Manufacturers can make changes to the materials used in the device that are necessitated by changes in manufacturing, assuming that manufacturing change was brought on by the conditions imposed by the pandemic. This holds only if the change in material does not suggest an impact on device safety or performance, however.
Conversely, the manufacturer cannot make a change to a device’s intended use under this policy, and even the changes that qualify under this pandemic policy must be documented per routine record-keeping activities, such as device history records. The sponsor must also report all changes, exempt or not from supplementary flings, in the annual report due for that device. Interestingly, the FDA had just completed its revised guidance for PMA annual reports in December 2019.
PTO Says No to AI as Inventor
The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office announced last year that it was seeking feedback on whether artificial intelligence could be an inventor, but the agency ultimately declined to go along with the concept. Underlying the decision was the fact that the statute makes specific reference to entities that would qualify as a natural person or persons, but PTO was not the only patent office to pass on the proposal.
The PTO opened the proposal for public comment in August 2019 at the behest of the inventors of the DABUS algorithm, Stephen Thaler of Imagitron LLC. The algorithm, which Thaler described as a creativity machine, is a general-purpose algorithm that Thaler claimed was not trained for any specific invention or field of endeavor. When Thaler first filed for a patent in 2019, the examiner returned the application for failure to identify the inventor by a legal name.
The problem for Thaler, according to the PTO, is that Title 35 of the U.S. Code defines an inventor or inventors as “the individual or … individuals who invented or discovered the subject matter of the invention.” The agency said Section 101 of Title 35 states that “whoever invents or discovers” a useful article may obtain a patent, and that other portions of Title 35 make reference to pronouns such as “himself” and “herself.”
The PTO pointed to case law in support of its position as well, including a 2013 decision by the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. The PTO observed that Thaler had himself acknowledged that an AI system enjoys no property rights under current law, which the agency said “further calls into question whether the submitted assignment document satisfies the requirements” spelled out in several portions of the Code of Federal Regulations.
Thaler had no better luck in other patent offices, including the U.K. Intellectual Property Office, which came to a similar conclusion in December 2019. The U.K. IPO’s handling of the matter largely mirrored that of the PTO’s approach, initially rejecting the application because “a person must be identified” on an application. The agency’s deputy director, Huw Jones, acknowledged that there is a legitimate question as to how such issues ought to be handled, but recommended that the debate be handled legislatively and “not shoehorned arbitrarily into existing legislation.”