Given the volume of news affecting the life sciences, there are always some favorable outcomes and some that trend in the opposite direction. Following are a few recent developments of note, including one that provided good news for the companies in question, and another that is still unfolding.
Fifth Circuit Blasts Pinnacle Hip Decision
In the area of liability law, the big miss over the past couple of weeks for litigants was the decision by the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals regarding the Pinnacle hip multi-district litigation. The outcome is of course a significant win for DePuy Orthopedics and its parent, Johnson & Johnson, but the case was remanded to a lower court for reconsideration, and so the device makers are not off the hook just yet.
The court expressed quite a bit of ire over the handling of the case at the trial court, particularly regarding allegations the companies bribed the regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq, but there were a few issues with paid witnesses that plaintiff’s attorneys had indicated were testifying without compensation. The outcome relieves the companies of a $151 million liability, which was itself a fraction of the $502 million originally arrived at in this case. The principle message to be learned from this outcome is that attorneys for plaintiffs can’t indulge in every whimsical allegation that comes to mind if they want these lawsuits to stay on an even keel.
FDA floats digital precert model
The precertification pilot program for software as a medical device drew raves from stakeholders when the FDA announced the program in September 2017, and the agency has now delivered on a draft working model of a full program. Whether developers see this as a hit or a miss might be conditional on several things, including whether the vendor has prior experience with device applications. The draft states that developers with previous experience in the device business will be subject to less scrutiny, something that information technology companies may see as discriminatory.
The precert concept relies on an organization’s demonstrated commitment to a culture of quality, but the agency said in a statement accompanying the draft working model that such a designation would mean that the organization in question “could potentially submit less information” on the product prior to going to market. The FDA addressed the question of third-party precertification with another response that amounts to “definitely maybe.” This uncertainty also underscored the agency’s remarks regarding whether certified sponsors will be subject to inspections, another conspicuous deviation from the precert pilot.
Opinions vary regarding whether this new paradigm for regulated software is as painless as some believe, given all the optimism surrounding the pilot. One regulatory attorney told a media outlet recently that the FDA document seems an implicit trade of faster times to market in exchange for more regulation. Regulatory attorney Bradley Merrill Thompson of Epstein Becker Green also said, “industry has to review this proposal with eyes wide open.”
In a somewhat related development, the FDA published a draft guidance for multiple function device products, and the Federal Register notice states that the FDA’s Bakul Patel is the contact point for the draft, making clear that this is principally about software devices and software functions that are secondary to the device primary function. Patel is the associate director for digital health at the agency’s device center, hence the authorship makes clear the focus of the draft despite that a device with no software at all could be a multi-function device.
The draft defines the term “function” as “a distinct purpose of the product,” but that distinct purpose could be a mere subset of the intended use or could make up the entire intended use. The most interesting part of the draft, which was made necessary by Section 3060 of the 21st Century Cures Act, is that it states that the “device function-under-review” will be the principle point of interest, although the agency will assess the impact of these other functions on the function under review, even when those other functions would otherwise enjoy enforcement discretion or would not be subject to regulation.
Sponsors will have to conduct a risk analysis of the potential impact of these non-reviewed functions on the function under review, but these non-reviewed functional aspects of the device won’t be subject to post-market surveillance activities. Still, device makers will have to document design considerations for non-reviewed functions, such as software architecture, as well as any relationships between the reviewed and non-reviewed functions, such as shared computational resources.
While the draft may be an improvement on regulatory silence on the matter, it would seem to raise the question of why the entirety of the Quality Systems Regulation is not applicable to a device function that is nonetheless subject to risk analyses and some of the more labor-intensive documentation requirements that fall under the QSR.