FDA Recasts Abbreviated 510(k) for Safety and Performance

The flood of draft and final guidances published by the FDA’s device center in September was the largest for any given month in recent memory, but among these was a rewrite of a final guidance with only seven months of wear and tear behind it.

The latest guidance, titled “Framework for the Safety and Performance-Based Pathway,” is part of the agency’s focus on overhauling the 510(k) program, and substantially reduces the need to compare the subject of a 510(k) application to a predicate device. The document states that sponsors will have to cite a predicate device in applications filed under the safety and performance-based pathway, but that comparisons to the predicate will be considerably less important than demonstrations that the new device conforms to the specifications prospectively developed by the FDA.

The FDA had initially described the antecedent guidance as an expansion of the abbreviated 510(k) program, and indeed, both final guidances share the same docket at regulations.gov. One of the critical differences between the abbreviated 510(k) route and the safety and performance path is that the FDA has agreed to issue device-specific standards for the use of this new premarket mechanism. The anticipation is that this process will be less cumbersome than the legacy 510(k) paths, the traditional, special and abbreviated 510(k) mechanisms, although the need for device type-specific guidance will limit the number of devices that are eligible for the program in the near term.

There are four device types that will be the first to enjoy this relatively streamlined approach to premarket review. The difficulty for the FDA in terms of managing this program will be the need to go through the comment process for the guidances needed for each device type. One of the inaugural device types for the safety and performance-based process is the cutaneous electrode for recording purposes, perhaps the lowest-risk member of the group.

Also on the list are conventional Foley catheters, spinal plating systems, and orthopedic, non-spinal metallic bone screws and washers. Each of the four product specification sets is the subject of a draft guidance with a comment period that closes Dec. 19. The agency will conduct a webinar Nov. 7 to go over the overarching and the product-specific draft guidances. While this program should make it easier for the FDA to meet its turn-around times for 510(k) applications overall under the current and future user fee agreements, it seems likely the resources needed to stand up this program will in the short run prove to be at least as much a distraction as a help to the agency.

ASCA Pilot Nears Ready for Launch

Also appearing in the third week of September was the FDA’s draft guidance for the ASCA (accreditation scheme for conformity assessment) pilot, a program designed to more frequently leverage standards for medical device application reviews. The focus of this program is to certify accreditation bodies that will in turn evaluate medical device testing labs to ensure those labs’ standards will accurately evaluate a device’s performance characteristics.

The ASCA program – which was described in the commitment letter signed by the FDA and industry representatives as part of the current device user fee schedule – should aid considerably in the agency’s efforts to align its regulatory policies with those of the international community. The ASCA program relies in large part on the ISO 17000 series for implementation, including ISO 17025, which applies to certification of testing labs.

The device maker should in many instances seek to obtain a declaration of conformity for any device it submits to a testing lab for evaluation, but the FDA indicated that it reserves the right to revisit the testing should premarket review staff have any misgivings about the testing. A testing lab might also have its certification revisited if a device it tested becomes the subject of recalls or a large number of adverse event reports. The agency is accepting feedback from stakeholders through Dec. 23, and will conduct an Oct. 28 webinar to provide further details.